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[其他] 【新作】精神病人呓语(信息,媒体,个体)

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[LV.6]资本萌兔

发表于 2017-12-1 17:46:23 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
今天已经肝了4个钟了。身在港校(伪)赶deadline,把通识课期末论文的话题定在了这个自己已经关注了很久的话题上。会先把已经写出来的、最核心部分的草稿中文放出来,之后会放现在已经写出的英文稿,感兴趣的尽力啃一下吧

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[LV.6]资本萌兔

 楼主| 发表于 2017-12-1 17:48:21 | 显示全部楼层
(很久之前写的草稿,之后一直在肝英文版,很多东西都还没改,看一下就好)
媒体

地理隔离是人类获取外界信息的主要阻碍。尽管现在速度最快的飞机已经足以在12小时内把人类送到地球上的任意一点,但这样的成本对于我们几乎所有人来说几乎并不现实:绝大多数情况下,碍于时间成本,我们甚至不愿意从一个城市的一端旅行到另一端去确认很多事情,更别说那些发生在我们城市以外,甚至国家以外的事情了。

由于地理隔离的存在,媒体应运而生。尽管通过媒体获取的信息和通过我们自己的感官所获取的信息有不少的重合,但可以肯定的是,媒体是我们获取任何自己不在场的事件相关消息的唯一手段

鉴于其唯一性,媒体对人的认知的形成具有决定性作用。对于发生在我们身边以外的事情,我们无不需要遵循“事件→媒体→个体”的途径来获知。乍一看,事件似乎在这一链条里面起根本作用,然而实际上,根本决定我们能够获取的信息的各项性质的其实是媒体。媒体作为沟通我们与视野范围以外事情的桥梁,几乎完全决定了我们能够获取哪些信息(我们甚至难以确定真实与否),以及获取信息的视角(广度)和深度。我们作为个体本身如果不借助媒体,则必然无法获得发生在我们身边范围外的事情。由此形成了媒体对个体的信息不对称:媒体在信息上对于个体的绝对优势,某种意义上媒体对个体的绝对支配权。

个体相对于媒体是十分脆弱的。对于所传递的信息的可靠性,我们从根本上来说几乎无从获知,除非我们完全排除媒体的因素,以自己的感官进行直接确认,然而这通常不被我们的时间和能力所允许。所以,大部分情况下,我们只能综合不同媒体的信息,来提炼尽可能真实的信息,尽管这样的方式从根本上来说无从保证信息的准确性和全面性。除了直接的影响以外,媒体对个体的长远影响不可忽视。尽管宣传上,公众媒体宣扬追求“客观公正不站队”,但这样的口号在媒体本身少有受到监督的情况下,几乎没有任何实际的保证; 毫无疑问,如果长期接受单一媒体的信息,从被局限的视角看待问题,就算拥有非常理性客观的思维,也难以保证在较长时间后不受到潜移默化的影响,从而倾向于媒体自己的观点。

对于前面的看法,有人可能会以现在资讯的发达程度来反驳,认为笔者过于悲观。不错,现在的资讯发达程度远非以前可比,国内国外所发生的任何一件事情,可以在发生后几分钟内被发上微博之类的媒体平台,再经过以几何倍数增长的传播,传到很多受众的视野内。然而这忽视了非常严重的一点:现代发达的资讯大大加强了信息的传播速度,却没有使得信息的验证手段有相应幅度的增长。虽然媒体的数量比以往更多,使得我们获得了更多的验证渠道(我们每一个网络用户都拥有了发布信息的能力,都拥有了一定程度的媒体功能),地理隔离导致个体严重依赖媒体的局面没有得到根本改变。结合后面的论证,我们会发现,信息的可靠性可能反而比以前资讯不发达的时候更差。

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[LV.10]奔月玉兔

发表于 2017-12-1 22:42:28 | 显示全部楼层
港灿都是惯出来的毛病
来自安卓客户端来自安卓客户端
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[LV.6]资本萌兔

 楼主| 发表于 2017-12-1 17:49:00 | 显示全部楼层
Information
According to the mostly accepted definition, information is used to eliminate random uncertainty (Claude Elwood Shannon, 1948).
According to definition, most of the information we receive in our daily life is composite information consisting of basic information points (the concept is not explicitly defined).

Example (fiction):
In the morning of November 6th, Sam bought two boxes of apples at vegetable market.
This information includes:
three main bodies: Sam, vegetable market and apple
two movements: going, buying
time: in the morning of November 6th.
If a simple split is made, the composite information includes these basic information points:
On the morning of November 6th, Sam went out.
Sam went to vegetable market.
Sam bought two boxes of apples.

In existing document literatures, innumerable natures of information have been listed. The main nature of information is divided into three categories: acceptance, reliability and credit.
Acceptability is the ability of composite information to be understood by individuals. It is divided into three aspects: readability, relevance and interest.
Readability determines whether an individual is able to accept certain information, depending on the individual's intelligence and knowledge reserve.

Example:
Intel CoreTM i7-7700HQ processor, 4c8t, 2.8GHz clock frequency……
When buying a computer, such information will undoubtedly make most people puzzled, because the audience does not have the expertise required to read the content. People are not able to understand the information that is unreadable to them, and they can only accept the information that is readable to them (for example, for Intel CoreTM processor, i7 is more powerful than i5 in most cases), so they can be misled in this way.

Relevance is the absolute relationship between the individual and the information itself. Generally speaking, the correlation between information and individual, is closely related to the important interests of individuals. Most of the students are very concerned about the results of their final tests, and most of the staff are extremely concerned about their salary changes, because the information has strong correlation with themselves.
Interest depends on the individual's own taste to the relevant topics. It can well explain why many individuals are concerned about things that are not significantly relevant to their individual interest. For example, many articles that are now active in micro-blog (Weibo) and WeChat. The information does not have direct link with the interest of audience, but because it can arouse the audience's interest, these articles have been widely concerned. Individuals get satisfied emotionally (such as amused) through the information.

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[LV.6]资本萌兔

 楼主| 发表于 2017-12-1 17:49:59 | 显示全部楼层
Reliability is divided into three aspects: accuracy, comprehensiveness and timeliness. The reliability described here has nothing to do with the feelings of the audience. It is determined only by the content, so it can be seen as the fundamental nature of information.
Accuracy refers to the closeness of composite information to facts. Note that the accuracy here is not a black and white concept: composite information consists of basic information points, each of the points can be real or fake, and the errors of points is also of much consideration. So the accuracy mentioned here is a number from 0% to 100% (of course, the cases of exactly 0% and 100% widely exists). Up to now, there is no reliable way to quantify the accuracy of information.

Examples (fiction):
Considering the example of "Sam buy apples". The original information is 100% accurate. If we change the “November 6th” to “November 7th”, then there is no doubt that this composite information is no longer 100% accurate. According to some definitions, this information belongs to false information. But according to our definition, the accuracy of this information is not 0%, because part of the basic information points, "Sam go to the vegetable market", "Sam buy apples", are true. if we change the “November 6th” into “around November 3rd”, the accuracy of information gets lower for the growth of uncertainty (no clear range of “around” for reference during analysis).

Comprehensiveness refers to the degree of reduction to event conditions. It's important to note that the lack of comprehensiveness can result in similar consequences as the lack of accuracy in some cases. Because in our daily life, when we analyze information, we always use defaults to fill some missing basic information points, which enables the lack of comprehensiveness to cause similar threats as the lack of accuracy.

Examples (fiction):
Considering the example of "Sam buy apples". If in most cases, a box of apples is 24 in each, then the lack of information "12 apple in each box" is easy to cause the serious mistake in judging the number of apples, although the accuracy of this information is 100%, as all the consisting basic information points are correct.

Example:
In a news report of NetEase (already deleted), remains of more than 100 Red Army (the army of Communist Party during 1927 to 1937) soldiers were found. It wrote: “These injuries were installed in a temporary hospital. Having no time to escape, they were pushed into the well (and drowned to death).” The information has no mistake in all its basic information points, but it avoided the subject of the action “push” : KMT soldiers (enemies at the time). The lack of comprehensiveness significantly misled the view of audience. In the comments section, users critically blamed the policy of Red Army, killing their own soldiers to keep military secrets.

Timeliness refers to the value of information that is valuable only to a decision in a certain period of time. A lot of information has lost its value as a reference in the long run.

Examples:
In early July of 2017, one of the main producers of DRAM, Micron®, was said to meet some incident in one of its factories. Although the reality was not confirmed, the news brought shock to the electronic memory market, as DRAM, the basic component of electronic memory, had already been extremely short of supply. The price of electronic memory in Chinese market met a significant growth with time. For a person who want to make money by hoarding, the information lowers its timeliness with time, as the person could make less profit if he received the information later.

Credit is not related to the reliability of information. A high reliability information may be produced by a poor credit information source, resulting in low credit. Credit involves an important process: individual may combine different sources of information to confirm the authenticity of a composite information. The judgement is not only about number, but weight as well. Credit of information is important for individuals to decide the weight of a certain information. Credit of information depends on many aspects, such as the credit of information source, the profession of information source, and the profession reflected from composite information itself (make individuals feel that they are responsible through expression).
Originally, talking about the nature of information, we must talk about the nature of information dissemination. However, the emergence of new social media has led to the convergence of information dissemination capabilities (most of them equipped with the ability to spread quickly). The relevant parts will be discussed in the following "media" block.

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[LV.6]资本萌兔

 楼主| 发表于 2017-12-1 17:50:46 | 显示全部楼层
Individual
Here the individuals involved in information exchange are discussed. Individuals are the smallest unit to accept, to judge, to dispose, to spread and to response information.
Individuals have the distinct to pursue information. The nature is evitable after the birth of intelligence. Long before the form of society, our ancestors had been strived to collect all kinds of information, such as the law of season, the regulation of climate, the work and rest of other animals…… Information of more relevance or more reliability provides more reliable reference to decisions. Through the promotion of information reliability, individuals are able to maximize their interest. Interesting information provides leisure to individuals

Example:
     Many Chinese families are facing a similar problem with the development of technology: we are spending more time on mobile devices. The phenomenon is blamed for the reduce of face-to-face communication. The elder generation can easily be displeased, seeing that younger family members watching their cellphones, but many of the elders get even more addicted to mobile devices after they learnt how to use them. All these can be explained with individual’s nature to pursue information of more relevance, interest and reliability.

Individual’s behavior towards information can be divided into 5 parts: reception, reliability judgement, extended analysis, transition and reaction. Not all of them have to have to happen in a single case (a certain individual facing with a certain information)
The reception consists of 3 steps. First, media posts information to a certain individual, or individuals experience the case by the individual himself. Second, the information carried by media or the case itself must be readability to the individual, or the individual refine the information from the case experienced. They enable individuals to understand the information (of course, misunderstanding happens in some cases). Third, the information has enough relevance or interest to the individual, so that the individual continues its behavior related to the information.
Reliability judgement often happens without the awareness of individuals. Individuals have 2 ways to judge: judgement through logic and relevant knowledge, judgement through the comparison between different sources. By judgement through logic and relevant knowledge, you can see that there is a contradiction between “Sam went to amusement park yesterday morning” and “Sam stayed at school for a whole day yesterday”, and you will deny the information “Andy succeeded in making a perpetual motion machine”. Weighted accumulation are used in judgement through the comparison between different sources, and the weight of a certain information is determined by its credit rather than its reliability (essentially, individual judge reliability through credit).
If an information has passed reliability judgement, then it can be used as a condition in extended analysis, in order to achieve the interest of individual. Note that individual use defaults to fill some missing basic information points in this procedure, which enables the lack of comprehensiveness to cause similar threats as the lack of accuracy.
After extended analysis, individual may take reactions. The transition of information usually happens after the information pass reliability judgement (in some cases, individuals may ask others for a confirm for a certain information), which turns the individual into a media.

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[LV.6]资本萌兔

 楼主| 发表于 2017-12-1 17:51:51 | 显示全部楼层
Media
Geographical isolation is the main obstacle for human to access external information. Although the fastest plane is able to put a man to a point on the Earth in 12 hours, but the extreme cost makes that impractical to almost all of us. In most cases, due to the time cost, we do not even accept to go to the other side of the city we live, to confirm some information.
Because of the existence of geographical isolation, media came into being. For a event that we cannot experience by ourselves, media is the only way for us to receive information from. We need to follow the "event - media - individual" approach to receive information.
At first glance, events seem to play a fundamental role in this chain inside. However, media actually plays the character. Media almost completely determines what information we can obtain, and how reliable the transmitted information is. We, as individuals, are strictly limited by that. That forms the information asymmetry between media and individuals: in the relation, media owns absolute advantage.
Individuals are extremely vulnerable to the media. Fundamentally speaking, we are not able to confirm the stability of information given by media. This would only be invalid if we completely exclude media factors, and confirm the information with our own senses. However, this is usually not allowed by our time and ability. Because of that, in most cases, we have to integrated information given by different media to extract real information as much as possible, although this way is fundamentally impossible to ensure the accuracy and comprehension of information. In addition to the direct impact, the long-term impact of the media on individuals cannot be ignored. Most public medias claimed impersonality while delivering information, but that has almost no effective guarantee; there is no doubt that if people receive information from limited medias for a long time, regarding problems from the limited perspectives, even the individual with very rational and objective thinking, is almost impossible to resist the impact, tend to have similar views as media.
In the way, media plays a decisive role in the formation of human cognition. If media deliberately misleads individuals, and the action continuous for a period, then almost no one will be able to resist.

Example:
In Taiwan, the understanding of Mainland China is heavily affected by social media and one-sided view in historical education. Experts raised speeches, such as “more than half of the Chinese cannot afford tea eggs”, “some primary school students carried machine guns while going to school”, “most residents in Shenzhen eat pork once a year”, on TV shows. In high school historical education, the content about Mainland China stopped before the Cultural Revolution ends. Many Taiwanese think that Mainland China is poor and undeveloped. Some Taiwan young people only find their views totally wrong after they came to Mainland China.

Some people may argue that new technologies and the development of social media helps to reduce the asymmetry, regarding that the view in previous paragraphs is too pessimistic. It is true that information technologies have developed amazingly in the previous years, and we can get faster access to information compares to our ancestors. However, one thing is ignored: modern information technologies greatly enhance the speed of information delivery, but did not make corresponding increase to the verification methods. Because of the existence of geographical isolation, we still rely almost entirely on media, and have to integrated information given by different media to extract real information in most cases, as our ancestors. Although is true that with the growing number of media, the reliability of information is enhanced in some aspects, we will see that things are not so simple in the later part.
Media’s lack of neutrality also doubted the guarantee of information reliability. The phenomenon can be explained from 2 aspects. Firstly, worked as supervisors themselves, media themselves receive little supervision. We can often see media blaming on government, blaming on enterprise, but we seldom see blames on media. Secondly, media are fundamentally encouraged to voice for their own interest, because of human nature. Media’s lack of neutrality causes extreme problems. With guided information, media is able to guide the audience to agree to their view, sometimes beneficial to media but not the audience.

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[LV.6]资本萌兔

 楼主| 发表于 2017-12-1 17:52:11 | 显示全部楼层
Low Reliability information
Low reliability information refers to the information that is lack of accuracy, comprehensiveness or timeliness, and it impel individuals to make decisions that is fundamentally harmful to their own interest in most cases. Fundamentally, information asymmetry provides basis for low reliability information. Due to people’s extreme reliability of media, a low reliability information will be accepted by people with the establish of 3 conditions:
1.        The case happened outside the range of feeling. That is, people cannot confirm the information simply through their own feelings.
2.        The information has no significant logic and knowledge faults. That is, the information is able to pass the judgement through logic and relevant knowledge, the first step of reliability judgement.
3.        There is no supportive reverse information from other information sources. That is, the information is able to pass the judgement through the comparison between different sources, the second step of reliability judgement.
For individuals, there is almost nothing to stop them from adopt the low reliability information, if the information satisfies all the 3 conditions.
For low reliability information, there are other asymmetrical advantages.

1.        First impressions are usually strongest. People tend to believe what they receive first, as this is a pivotal period of them to form corresponding cognition. If an individual firstly hear about something with low reliability information, then it is extremely hard for him to make correction to this.
2.        Group psychology enables low reliability information to make mass diffusion. According to the second step, the second step of reliability judgement, judgement through logic and relevant knowledge, depends both on number of information source and credit. But for medias who are also individuals themselves, their credits are judged flatwise, making the judgement depend too much on number of information source. The phenomenon explains the disastrous spread of rumor on social platforms such as Weibo: why is works so severely, and why it is hard to stop.

Example:
In Strategies of the Warring States Period, an ancient Chinese writing, an interesting case was considered. Zeng Zi, a student of Confucius, left his hometown and went to Fei. Several days later, another people, who has the same name with Zeng Zi, committed murder in Fei. A person, who was mislead by the news, told the mother of Zeng Zi, who was weaving at the time, that his son committed murder. Zeng Zi’s mother deeply knew the character of Zeng Zi, so she denied the information, and continued her work. Shortly afterwards, another person told Zeng Zi’s mother the similar information. Zeng Zi’s mother paid no attention. Later, one more person told Zeng Zi’s mother the news. Zeng Zi’s mother was scared, and she escaped away. Considering cases like that, there is a Chinese idiom 三人成虎, with a direct translation “3 person makes a tiger”. It refers to a case that 3 persons’ report that there is a tiger in city make people convinced.
In the previous case, Zeng Zi’s mother used judgement through logic and relevant knowledge to determine whether the information is true or not, and the credit of the 3 persons are judged flatwise. The 3 persons could be misled by similar information sources, and sometimes, they should be blamed for their incaution of information reliability judgement. But with the 3 guys infected, other people with more caution of information reliability judgement can be convinced by the amount of information sources, although they are not really reliable. The chain reaction is accelerated exponentially. It is hard to stop. Things can be even worse with higher speed of information delivering and higher frequency of information exchange.

3.        Advantage in acceptability. Low reliability information usually has more readability than refute, as refute often need to consider more aspects and give more detailed analysis to explain, while rumors can be extremely readable with simple pictures and stems (with stem, rumor makers are able to make rumors with too much list of facts, and individuals rarely consider whether the stems are suitable for a certain case). Rumors are often emotive, making individuals feel more relevance and interest (for example, make individuals feel extremely angry to a certain subject, or extremely admire a certain subject), and they are more possible to spread the information. The phenomenon explains why many rumors continues to affect severely on social media after the establish of comprehensive, detailed and even exclusive explanations.
4.        The asymmetrical superiority of critics to criticized subjects.

Example (friction):
A company was blamed cheating in its products. In the case, the public focused on the company, urging them to give explanations. (when an accuse is risen, critics do not need to give much evidence. Sometimes there is no evidence at all. But in the meantime, criticized objects are expected to give exclusive evidence)
When the company was able to gave some explanation, other blames, focusing on the doubts of explanations and other things, were risen. (in the critics-criticized objects relation, critics have the initiative to choose the topic of debate, while criticized objects have to react passively to them)
Blames are risen when corresponding explanation cannot be given in a period. (giving exclusive explanation can be a hard cost to resources and time, because all the required aspects have to be considered. If exclusive evidence cannot be given in a period, the public would judge that the criticized objects are guilty)
Stems about the case were risen about the case, destroying the public image of the company. (information such as stem and emoticon pictures are extremely readable, with the emotion to make individuals resonance, and they are rarely tested for their information reliability).
Finally, the company was able to respond all the accuses, giving detailed, comprehensive and exclusive explanations, but the wrong information was still spreading in the public. (due to “advantage in acceptability” in the previous paragraph, only in extreme cases can the effect of unreliable accuse disappear absolutely)
The company raised blames to rumor makers, but these produced little effect. (in many cases, the subject of critics are hard to determine, and guilty persons receive extremely little cost, which enables them to prepare for more rumor attacks)

Example:
Bawang, a Chinese shampoo producer, suffered a lot from a rumor attack. Before the crisis, Bawang owned 7.6% of Chinese shampoo market(2008), and it was still increasing. In 2010, a Hong Kong magazine reported that two oxane contained in Bawang shampoo could cause cancer. Although the report was confirmed false in several months, the spread of the rumor did not stop. An advertisement represented by Jackie Chan, a famous moving star, was adapted to oto-mad, and posted to a famous video website. It soon became a popular stem in a short time, bringing continuous and destructive pressure to both Bawang and Jackie Chan. Bawang suffered from a continuous deficit for over 6 years, and the total loss is over 1.6 billion yuan. In 2017, according to the judgement of court in Hong Kong, the Hong Kong magazine paid 3 million Hong Kong dollar to Bawang.

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[LV.6]资本萌兔

 楼主| 发表于 2017-12-1 17:52:49 | 显示全部楼层
Impact
The situation talked previously is generally destructive to some basis of society throughout human history. In democratic societies, the opinion of majority is considered generally right, and it should be implemented. Even in societies without democratic elections, the majority priority principle is accepted widely in most cases, and the opinion of majority can deeply affect the whole society. The principle of “majority is right” depends much on the 2 viewpoints:

1.        When facing decision times, the decision of the majority is generally right.
2.        When facing interest conflicts, people ware able to know what to do to maintain their own interest, and the opinion of majority would benefit the majority.

It is easy to see, that information asymmetry between media and individual is destructive to the principle: with unreliable information, there is little possibility for people to have generally correct view to certain subjects, and there is almost no way for them to make correct decisions, what to do when facing decision times, and what to do to maintain their own interest. For guilty people, if they can control media generally, they are able to mislead the public, to make wrong decisions and to take actions that are generally harmful to the interest of majority. If the case go to extreme, then the society would have little difference, in some aspects, compared to highly dictatorial societies.

Example:
Before Iraq War in 2003, U.S. and U.K. medias worked a lot to convince the public. In the whole period, there are no evidence showing that:
1.        Saddam regime owned weapons of mass destruction.
2.        Saddam regime was related to Al Qaida, the terrorist organization who launched terrorist attack to New York on Sep. 11th, 2001.
But report with tendency and emotion convinced the public. According to the poll by New York Times and CBS News in 2002 and early 2003, over 80% percent of Americans believed that Saddam regime owned weapons of mass destruction, over 60% percent Americans supported military actions if decided, and nearly 50% percent people thought that Bush’s foreign policy was making America safer from terror.
After Iraq War, no evidence of mass destruction weapon and relation to terrorist organizations was found eventually. The case was ignored by media in some aspects, and responsible people received little punishment. Until today, Iraq and some nearby area suffer from continuous armed conflict and death. The chaos left living space for terrorist organizations such as ISIL, and it is one of the reasons why America and Europe are suffering more terrorist attacks.

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[LV.6]资本萌兔

 楼主| 发表于 2017-12-1 17:55:31 | 显示全部楼层
写在最后:
这篇东西可以说是自己的夙愿了,希望可以给奋战在舆论战场上的亲们带来一些体系化的观点。中文版会在圣诞假开始后全力赶的。对于全篇的计划来说(抛开这门通识课的课题),英文也大概仅仅完成了一半。后续敬请期待

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[LV.9]镰锤红兔

发表于 2017-12-1 18:50:16 | 显示全部楼层

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[LV.10]奔月玉兔

发表于 2017-12-1 18:52:12 | 显示全部楼层
写的非常棒,亲是专业的么?

深入浅出角度新颖,很适合做为科普让大家学会多角度看待问题
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[LV.2]采集果兔

发表于 2017-12-1 19:20:11 | 显示全部楼层

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[LV.1]常见野兔

发表于 2017-12-1 20:51:28 | 显示全部楼层

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[LV.5]行商脚兔

发表于 2017-12-1 20:59:05 | 显示全部楼层

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[LV.7]共和政兔

发表于 2017-12-1 21:34:06 | 显示全部楼层
狐鸣 发表于 2017-12-1 18:52
写的非常棒,亲是专业的么?

深入浅出角度新颖,很适合做为科普让大家学会多角度看待问题

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啥?学历不是我填的啊……只是普通本科  详情 回复 发表于 2017-12-1 21:53
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[LV.10]奔月玉兔

发表于 2017-12-1 21:53:31 | 显示全部楼层
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[LV.9]镰锤红兔

发表于 2017-12-1 22:41:22 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 saminsam 于 2017-12-1 22:43 编辑

想当年哥好歹也是能写下几十页英文论文的,现如今,╮(╯▽╰)╭语法要看懂到没难度,就是这单词量,惨不忍睹

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[LV.2]采集果兔

发表于 2017-12-2 02:22:57 | 显示全部楼层
同计算机握爪,基本理论不错,信息非对称情况下从众筛选原则导致媒体的引导可操作性相当大。不过伊拉克战争的例子最好规避一下,如果你是给老外看的话。可以参考含铅汽油的危害为何一直被掩盖的例子。典型的大企业打压科研成果操作媒体牟利。
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[LV.5]行商脚兔

发表于 2017-12-2 16:09:50 来自爪机版 | 显示全部楼层
红裤衩已投,感谢蛆学大佬的辛苦付出

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[LV.7]共和政兔

发表于 2017-12-2 21:11:21 来自爪机版 | 显示全部楼层
只要citation沒問題這文章起碼拿到B+吧(∩▽∩)
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[LV.6]资本萌兔

 楼主| 发表于 2017-12-3 20:21:33 来自爪机版 | 显示全部楼层
老师回邮件了。前面一位仁兄的评论里面也提到,我在文章里面举了伊拉克战争前美国民众相信萨达姆持有大规模杀伤性武器,相信打伊拉克有助于减少kb袭击的例子,说明媒体对于民意巨大的操控作用。老师大概看得出还是很高兴的,评价说very interesting and well argued,仅仅说文章的论述顺序可以再调整一下,没有提到文章里用网易,香港杂志中伤霸王洗发水或者伊拉克战争的例子有什么不对。

简单来说,文章一些方面在解释的正是最近最热点的问题:比如,为什么谣言频发,危害巨大,又这么难以阻止(正如最近闹得举国不安的三原色事件)。我试图从最根本的,信息-媒体-个体三者的关系中,证明:媒体相对于个体,在现在的信息关系下,拥有过于巨大的(不正当的)优势(即现在被我所反复强调的信息不对称)。文章主要论述了信息-媒体-个体三者的基本性质及关系,信息不对称是如何形成的,到底有多么巨大的不对称优势,又可以对社会带来多么巨大的破坏。
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[LV.9]镰锤红兔

发表于 2017-12-3 23:00:41 | 显示全部楼层
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